Here is a list of the pre-war direct support (independent) missionaries: W. D. Cunningham, 1901-1936; Emily Cunningham, 1901-1953; M/M J.F. Messenger, 1915-1920; M/M Harold Beatty, Tokyo, 1921-1927; M/M Frank L. Lappin, 1922-1923; Miss Lean Gilbert, 1923-1924; M/M R.W. Isaacson, 1924-1928, Grace Farnham, 1925-1934 with the Cunningham work, 1935- 1960, independent, founded Mabashi Christian Mission; Doris Cunningham, 1927-1929; M/M John T. Chase, 1927-1936; Majel Lusby, 1928-1931; Vivian Lemmon, 1930-1934, left Cunningham work and returned in 1935 to take care of her father; Ruth Schoonover, 1931-1934, left Cunningham work and worked with Mabashi Mission till 1941, returned to Japan in 1948 to start work in Tanabe and died six months later; Ray Sawyer, Osaka, 1933-1935; Edith Shimmel and Ethel Jones, 1934-1939, who later went to the Philippines and then to Hawaii; M/M T.G. Hitch and daughter, Annie from Australia, to Cunningham mission, 1936; M/M Owen Still, 1936-1940 and 1947-1948, when they returned to Hawaii; and Paul and Marcia Nielsen, 1941, for seven months.